누가,요한복음을 중심으로 회복

"회복을 위한 긍정 심리치료(Positive Psychotherapy)”


예수 그리스도은 회복자(구원자)로 오셨다

세상을 이처럼 사랑하사 독생자를 주셨으니 이는 저를 믿는 자마다 영생을 얻게 하기 위해서라고 하셨다

사람에게는 긍정만이 좋은 것이 되고자 하면 부정을 인정하여야 한다

부정이 좋은 것은 아니지만 그러나 부정을 통한 긍정으로 나갈 수도 있고 긍정을 통한 긍정에 이를 수도 있다

특별히 성경 누가복음과 마가복음을 중심으로 긍정심리치료에 접근하고자 한다

그렇다면 긍정심리치료란 무엇인가

“긍정 심리치료(Positive Psychotherapy)” 란 인간의 긍정적 특성들을 강화하고 강점들을 개발하며 내담자에게서 아직 발현되지 않은 긍정적 변화의 원천들을 찾을 수 있도록 돕는 것을 바탕으로 한 치료법을 말합니다.


Positive psychology

Positive psychology, the study of optimal human functioning, is an attempt to respond to the systematic bias inherent in psychology's historical emphasis on mental illness rather than on mental wellness. Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers developed theories along these lines, but without solid empirical support. The pioneering research of a new generation of psychologists has led to a renewed interest in this approach, providing a firm scientific foundation for the study of human happiness and optimal function, thus adding a positive side to the predominantly negative discipline of psychology.


Seligman worked with Christopher Peterson to create the 'positive' counterpart to the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). While the DSM focuses on what can go wrong, Character Strengths and Virtues looks at what can go right. In their research they looked across cultures and across millennia to distill a manageable list of virtues that have been highly valued from ancient China and India, through Greece and Rome, to contemporary Western cultures. Their list includes six character strengths: wisdom/knowledge, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence. Each of these has perhaps a half-dozen sub-entries - for instance, temperance includes forgiveness, humility, prudence, and self-regulation.[9] One of their key points is that they do not believe that there is a hierarchy for the six virtues – no one is more fundamental than or a precursor to the others.


* 전통적인 심리치료와의 차이점


Martin E. P. Seligman 박사는 긍정 심리치료를 심리상담 및 심리치료자들의 고유한 “천부적 권리(brightright)”라고 소개한 바 있다


* 치료의 목표

전통적 심리치료에서 내담자들이 부적응 또는 정신장애를 나타내는 상태에서 정신병리가 없는 상태로 호전될 수 있도록 돕는 것을 목표로 하는 반면, 긍정 심리치료에서는 행복한 자기실현 상태에 달성할 수 있도록 돕는 것을 목표로 한다.


* 치료 과정에서의 초점

전통적인 심리치료에서 내담자들의 문제 증상들을 경감시키는 방안들에 초점을 두었다면,

긍정 심리치료에서는 내담자들이 정신장애와 무관하게 가지고 있는 강점들 또는 정신장애에 의해 손상 받지 않은 기능들을 보다 더 강화시킬 수 있는 방안들에 주로 초점을 둡니다.


MAPP program

The Master of Applied Positive Psychology program at the University of Pennsylvania was established under the leadership of Seligman as the first educational initiative of the Positive Psychology Center in 2003.


Martin E. P. Seligman (born August 12, 1942, in Albany, New York) is an American psychologist who also writes self-help books. A world-renowned authority on depression and abnormal psychology,[1] he is known for his work on the theory of "learned helplessness", and according to The Daily Pennsylvanian is considered the father of positive psychology.[2] He is the director of the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania.[3]


According to Haggbloom et al.'s study of the most eminent psychologists of the 20th century, Seligman was the 13th most frequently cited psychologist in introductory psychology textbooks throughout the century, as well as the 31st most eminent overall.[4]


Seligman is the Robert A. Fox Leadership Professor of Psychology in the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Psychology. He was previously the Director of the Clinical Training Program in the department. Seligman was elected President of the American Psychological Association by the widest margin in its history and served in that capacity during the 1998 term.[5] He is the founding editor-in-chief of Prevention and Treatment Magazine (the APA electronic journal), and is on the board of advisers of Parents.


According to an interview last year for his electronic journal Prevention and Treatment he said magenta was his favorite color because of the amazing calming effects of the color on the human body. Also, he has seven children, four grandchildren and two dogs, Rosie and Lily.


Seligman has written about positive psychology topics such as The Optimistic Child, Child's Play, Learned Optimism, and, in 2002, Authentic Happiness. He plays bridge, and finished second in one of the three major North American pair championships, the Blue Ribbon Pairs (1997), and has done well in many regional championships.


Learned helplessness

Seligman's foundational experiments and theory of "learned helplessness" began at University of Pennsylvania in 1967, as an extension of his interest in depression. Quite by accident, Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes that were opposite to the predictions of B.F. Skinner's behaviorism, then a leading psychological theory.[6]


Seligman developed the theory further, finding learned helplessness to be a psychological condition in which a human being or an animal has learned to act or behave helplessly in a particular situation - usually after experiencing some inability to avoid an adverse situation - even when it actually has the power to change its unpleasant or even harmful circumstance. Seligman saw a similarity with severely depressed patients, and argued that clinical depression and related mental illnesses result in part from a perceived absence of control over the outcome of a situation.[7]


According to author Jane Mayer[8], Seligman gave a talk at the Navy SERE school in San Diego in 2002, which he said was a three-hour talk on helping U.S. soldiers to resist torture, based on his understanding of learned helplessness.


Publications

Peterson, Christopher, & Seligman, Martin E. P. (2004). Character Strengths and Virtues. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 987-0-19-516701-6

Seligman, Martin E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0752-7 (Paperback reprint edition, W.H. Freeman, 1992, ISBN 0-7167-2328-X)

Seligman, Martin E. P. (1990). Learned Optimism. New York: Knopf. (reissue edition, Free Press, 1998, ISBN 0-671-01911-2)

Seligman, Martin E. P. (1993). What You Can Change and What You Can't: The Complete Guide to Successful Self-Improvement. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-679-41024-4 (Paperback reprint edition, Ballantine Books, 1995, ISBN 0-449-90971-9)

Seligman, Martin E. P. (1996). The Optimistic Child: Proven Program to Safeguard Children from Depression & Build Lifelong Resilience. New York: Houghton Mifflin. (Paperback edition, Harper Paperbacks, 1996, ISBN 0-06-097709-4)

Seligman, Martin E. P. (2002). Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2297-0 (Paperback edition, Free Press, 2004, ISBN 0-7432-2298-9)

Seligman, Martin E. P. (2004). '"Can Happiness be Taught?". Daedalus, Spring 2004.


참고(References

^ The Fox Leadership Professors, University of Pennsylvania Almanac, Vol. 46, No. 08, 10/19/99.

^ Cecily Wu (2008-04-17). "Center encourages people to embrace theory of positive thinking". The Daily Pennsylvanian.


Retrieved 2009-02-04.

^ Positive Psychology Center, University of Pennsylvania.

^ Haggbloom, S.J. et al. (2002). The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. Review of General Psychology. Vol. 6, No. 2, 139–15.

^ List of APA Presidents

^ Seligman, M.E.P. and Maier, S.F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1–9; Overmier, J. B. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1967). Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 28–33.

^ Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-2328-X

^ Scott Horton (2008-07-14). "Six Questions for Jane Mayer, Author of The Dark Side". Harper's Magazine. http://www.harpers.org/archive/2008/07/hbc-90003234. Retrieved 2009-02-04. "Seligman said his talk was focused on how to help U.S. soldiers resist torture—not on how to breakdown resistance in detainees. ... Mitchell has denied that these theories guided his and the CIA’s use"

^ Linley, P. A., Maltby, J., Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., Harrington, S., Peterson, C., Park, N., Seligman, M. E. P. (2007). Character strengths in the United Kingdon: The VIA Inventory of strengths Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 341-351.

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